ORTHOMAP

Version 1.33

U S E R' S   G U I D E

Contents

IntroductionIDH_Intro

General description of OrthoMapIDH_Gener

Software and hardware requirementsIDH_Req

Installation and start of OrthoMapIDH_Inst

RegistrationIDH_Reg

Standard sequence of actions for production of orthorectified imageryIDH_Seq

Method of correction of systematic errors in orthoimage productionIDH_Meth

Work with program

Main menuIDH_MMenu

Creation of a projectIDH_Crea

Opening an existing projectIDH_Open

Import ground control pointsIDH_ImpGCP

Preview imageIDH_Preview

Project Window

Setting of working filesIDH_SetW

Setting of camera parametersIDH_Camera

Setting of location and size of orthoimage (AOI)IDH_Loc

Setting of topocentric system locationIDH_Topo

Setting of coordinate system and pixel resampling typeIDH_CoordS

Setting camera modelIDH_Model

Setting direction of image coordinate systemIDH_Direct

Exterior orientation window, image and map windowsIDH_Exterior

General descriptionIDH_General

Edit existing pointIDH_Edit

Exterior orientationIDH_Ext

RectificationIDH_Ortho

Utilities

Coordinate calculatorIDH_Ccalc

Reproject UtilityIDH_Reprj

Import of DEM from ASCII file one Z on lineIDH_Imp

Import of DEM from ASCII file one DEM line on lineIDH_ImpLine

Import of DEM from ASCII file XYZ on lineIDH_ImpXYZ

Export of DEM to ASCII fileIDH_Exp

FlipIDH_Flip

Formats of files

Formats of input filesIDH_Inp

Format of output orthoimageIDH_Out

Format of OSD file headerIDH_Osd

Format of GCP fileIDH_Fgcp

Format of PTS file - control pointsIDH_Pts

OrthoMap abnormal termination error codesIDH_Abn

Technical supportIDH_Supp

(c) 2004-2007 Vinek Software


Introduction

Software package OrthoMap is designed for processing of images taken by the following cameras:

·         KVR-1000,

·         TK-350,

·         KFA-1000,

·         MK-4,

·         Landsat TM

·         IKONOS

·         IRS-1C

·         Spot 1,2,3

·         QuickBird

·         aerial photo cameras

OrthoMap allows to produce the following kinds of geo-referenced images:

·         true orthorectified image - in case of using Digital Elevation Model (DEM);

·         geometrically corrected image (true orthorectification but to a plane with the same height) - in case of using the same specified height for all source image points;

·         rectified image - in case of using polynomials for image transformation

·         geo-registered image (without rectification)

For production of orthoimagery it is necessary to have the following source data:

·         DEM over the whole area to be processed;

·         set of control points;

·         source image

For production of geometrically corrected imagery it is necessary to have the following source data:

·         average height over the area to be processed;

·         set of control points

·         source image

For production of rectified imagery it is necessary to have the following source data:

·         set of control points

·         source image

OrthoMap includes the following modules:

·         main module Omap for image exterior orientation;

·         orthorectification module Rectify;

·         Utilities for import/export of DEM.

Next modules may be used in Orthomap optionally:

·         Reproject module for transformation to required map projection;

·         Coordinate Calculator for recalculation ground control points to required map projection.

General description of OrthoMap

Process of production of an orthorectified image is organized in the form of a projectIDH_Crea. File of a project contains names of work files, parameters of orientation, parameters of coordinate systems and other work parameters.

OrthoMap version 1.33 processes data in the following coordinate systemsIDH_CoordS: Gauss-Kruger projection on Krasovsky ellipsoid and UTM projection on WGS-84 ellipsoid. Image orientation is performed in a local topocentric system. Topocentric systemIDH_Topo is a local rectangular Cartesian coordinate system referenced to a specific  point on Earth ellipsoid. It is used for increasing of accuracy of image orientation. In most cases it is recommended to locate the origin of the topocentric system at the center of weights of the control points (Auto topocentric turned on by default) or at the center of the work area using an appropriate function of the package. Project file stores reference point of the topocentric system and its azimuth in respect to the North; the azimuth coincides with the satellite's flight direction.

A special Ground Control Points (GCP) fileIDH_FGCP is used for storing coordinates of ground control points. Name of this file is the same as project name with extention ‘.gcp’. This file contains geodetic coordinates of control points and their pixel coordinates on a source image and can be imported from external gcp file. All coordinates (control points, reference points of images, etc.) are entered in selected geodetic system (WGS/UTM or Krasovsky/Gauss, if necessary, use Coordinate CalculatorIDH_CCalc to recalculate the coordinates) and are automatically transferred to the topocentric system during orientation. The orientationIDH_Ext can be performed using the following image models: geometric image model based on the laws of central projection (Frame), simple panoramic image model (Simple Panoramic – recommended for the most of space images), static panoramic image model (Panoramic Static), dynamic panoramic image model (Panoramic Dynamic), conformal - Polynomial (Conformal) and affine transformation - Polynomial (Affine). In the process of orientation coordinates of the point of photography, image rotation angles and other orientation parametersIDH_Model are determined.

After determination of orientation parameters rectification of source image is performed. If a DEM is specified for rectification then accurate orthorectification will be performed taking into account height of each pixel. In this case the accuracy of resulting image is determined only by accuracy of ground control points and by accuracy of their location on image (using GPS points, accuracy of 2-3 m is achievable from KVR-1000 images). If DEM is unavailable transformation using average height of the area is possible. This method of geometric correction allows to obtain good results for flat areas.

Software and hardware requirements

The software is developed as a 32-bit application for Windows 95/98/NT/2000/XP (not DOS/Windows 3.1) on x86 platform.

Minimal hardware requirements are the following:

·         Pentium 90;

·         64 Mb RAM;

·         230 Mb hard disk free space (with demo);

Recommended hardware configuration:

·         Pentium II - 400 or higher;

·         1 GbRAM or more;

·         hard disk free space 2 Gb or more.

 

Installation and start of OrthoMap

1. To install OrthoMap start SETUP.EXE. For installation it is necessary to specify destination directory on your hard disk where the program is to be installed. By default OrthoMap will be installed in the directory Program Files\VinekSoft\OMap1.33.

2. Note. If the demonstration samples are installed, it is necessary to   select  "." (dot) as decimal separator in Settings->Control Panel->Regional Settings.

3. To start the program select Start->Programs->Vinek Software->OrthoMap 1.33\OrthoMap.

Registration

OrthoMap has full set of functions during evaluation period. After evaluation period without registration it has limited set of functions.

If  you want to register this program then you ought to do the following steps:

1. Send me (vinek@yahoo.com)  Machine ID and Username (Machine ID you can take from window Register, Username think up yourself). You can save this information to text file and attach it to e-mail

   or press button Send - information will be sent by your default mailer.

2. Receive Serial number and Username from me

3. Enter Serial number and Username into appropriate fields in window Register and press Register button

Standard sequence of actions for production of orthorectified imagery

1. Prepare the following input data:

·         source image in TIFF, BMP, JPEG, OSD, ERS format;

·         set of control points in GCP format in desired coordinate system or raster image which can be used as map;

·         DEM in OSD format;

·         Coordinates of North-West corner of orthoimage to be produced in selected coordinate system;

·         Size of orthoimage to be produced;

·         Average height of the area;

·         Camera type(see predefined Camera types in IntroductionIDH_Intro) or Camera parameters (focal length, scanning resolution, approx. height of shooting).

2. Prepare a project specifying the following:

·         coordinate system;

·         camera parameters;

·         location and size of required area (Area of Interest –AOI);

·         file of source image;

·         file of DEM;

·         file of control points (GCP) - you need to import point into project;

·         name and location of output orthorectified image file.

3. Execute the process of orientation, evaluate accuracy of orientation.

4. Execute orthorectification of image.

 

Method of correction of systematic errors in orthoimage production

            After orthorectification of an image user obtains a file of orthoimage and a file containing the list of GCPsIDH_FGCP recalculated to the orthoimage. In order to evaluate the presence and value of systematic errors the user should place the GCPs on orthoimage according to their initial locations. After this it is necessary to perform orientationIDH_Ext of orthoimage using one of the polynomial models. To correct the image it is possible to use re-transformation of the image (Process -> Orthorectification) or perform re-registration of the image by changing the parameters in "world file" (e.g. TFW for TIF) without image transformation (Process -> Registration takes into account image offset and rotation; Process -> Simple Registration takes into account image offset only).

 

Work with a project

Main menu

The Main Menu contains the following items:

"File" - project management functions (Open, Create, Save):

            "New Project" - creates a new project;

            "Open Project" - opens an existing project;

            “Import points” – imports ground control points (GCP) into project;

            "Preview" – you can view any image in supported format;

            “Open Map” – this option is available after opening main image in exterior orientation process;

            "Save Project" - saves current project;

            "Save As" - saves current project with a different name;

            "Info" -  displays information about project;

            "Save Info" - saves information about project in a file;

            "Print Info" - prints the information about project on default printer;

            "Exit"- exits the program.

"Edit" - project editing, setting project parameters:

            "Coordinate System"- opens project window on Output CS pageIDH_CoordS;

            "Camera"- opens project window on camera pageIDH_Camera;

            "Topocentric System"- opens project window on topo pageIDH_Topo;

            "Ortho Image Location"- opens project window on AOI location pageIDH_Loc;

            "Resampling Type"- opens project window on Output CS pageIDH_CoordS;

            "Define Raw Image";

            "Define Ortho Image";

            "Define DEM";

            "Define Ground Control Points";

            "Orientation"

Window

            “Arrange all windows”  - default position for all program windows

"View"

            "Preview"– opens Open dialog for selecting preview image;

"Process" - processes of image orientation and transformation;

            "Orientation" - image exterior orientation;

            "Rectification (Ortho)" - image orthorectification;

            "Registration" - image registration without rectification;

            "Simple Registration" - image registration only dX, dY.

"Utilities" – menu of different utilitiesIDH_Utils, user can tune this menu

            "Orthorectification" – predefined tool for rectification

            "Import DEM from XYZ file" – predefined tool for DEM import

            "Import DEM from line format" – predefined tool for DEM import

            "Import DEM from one Z on line" – predefined tool for DEM import

"Help" - on-line help system.

Creation of a project

After start of the software there are only two available items in Main Menu/File: "New Project" and "Open Project". Select "File" form Main Menu, select "New Project" (or select "New Project" button  from tools palette). A new project is automatically created, WGS-84/UTM coordinate systemIDH_CoordS is selected by default with appropriate message in message window. Editing and  saving of project become available after creation of a project.

Note: a project is created in RAM. To save it to your hard disk select "Save Project" or "Save as" from "File" menu (or use "Save Project"  or "Save as"  buttons from tools palette).

 

Opening an existing project

            Select "Open project" from "File" menu or use "Open project"   button from tools palette. Common "open file" dialog is activated. Use this dialog to find and select a project file. Project editing and saving functions become available after opening a project. Project window will be automatically opened.

Note: a project is created in RAM. To save it to your hard disk select "Save Project" or "Save as" from "File" menu (or use "Save Project"  or "Save as"  buttons from tools palette).

Import ground control points

Ground Control Points (GCP) for project are stored in file with name of project and extention ‘.gcp’ -<projectname>.gcp, format of this file is described in section “Format of GCP fileIDH_Fgcp

You can enter control point manually or define them from raster map in process of exterior orientationIDH_Ext.

Or if you have external file of control points in GCP formatIDH_Fgcp you can import it into project.

Select "Import points" from "File" menu. Then select required file of gcp format from standard open file dialog.

Preview image

            Select "Preview" from "File" menu. Then select required image file from standard open file dialog. It is possible to view files of the following types: *.OSD, *.BMP, *.TIF, *.JPEG, *.ERS, *.DTM. After a file is selected, the preview image window are opened.

Preview Window

Preview window contains the following buttons:

 - display the whole image in the window;

 - zoom in by 2;

 - zoom out by 2;

*- authomatic histogram stretch

In the title of window X, Y pixel coordinates of an image point are shown.

Obtaining information on active project

            To obtain information on current status of active project select "Info" from "File" menu or use "Project information button from tools palette.

Appearing Information window contains the following pages:

·         Files             - setting of working filesIDH_SetW

·         Camera        - setting of camera parametersIDH_Camera

·         AOI location - setting of location and size of orthoimage (AOI)IDH_Loc

·         Topo            - setting of topocentric system locationIDH_Topo

·         Output CS    - setting of coordinate system and pixel resampling typeIDH_CoordS

·         Model          - setting camera modelIDH_Direct

            Active project is not automatically saved to your hard disk. If some changes are made to active project, the information window will display them rather than project information stored in the project file on the hard disk. To store the changes in the file, save active project (see Note to the section "Opening an existing project"IDH_Open above).


Editing a project

Setting of working files

Select item "Define Raw Image" from "Edit" menu to define source image file using common "Open file" dialog. Or you can click line “Input file” on page “Files”.

Select item "Define Ortho Image" from "Edit" menu to define name and directory path of output orthoimage file. Or you can click line “Output file” on page “Files”.

Select item "Define DEM" from "Edit" menu to define DEM file name (not used for transformation to mean plane) using common "Open file" dialog, also can be used to remove the DEM from the project. Or you can click line “DEM file” on page “Files”.

On this page you can define Project title and give some Comments for this project.

If you have control points in separate GCP file, then you can import them into project. Select item "Import points" from "File" and select file name using common "Open file" dialog. When you save project, control points will be saved in file with name of project file and ‘.gcp’ extention. The GCP file contains information determining location of each control point on image in pixel coordinates and on the ground in geographic coordinates. GCP file format described in section "Formats of Files"IDH_Fgcp.

Setting of camera parameters

            Select "Camera" from "Edit" menu. Camera parameters setting window is displayed.

Select camera type from "Camera type" listIDH_INTRO. Then the parameters "Focus", "Aperture" and "Altitude of flight" are automatically set for selected camera type. Each parameter can be changed separately. For other cameras select camera type "Unknown" then enter the camera parameters manually.

The required parameters are the following:

·         Focus - camera focal length (in millimeters);

·         Aperture - scanning aperture (in microns per pixel);

·         Altitude of flight - average altitude of shooting (in kilometers).

To save the changes in camera parameters, save active project (see Note to the section "Opening an existing project"IDH_Open above). To discard changes press "Cancel" button.

Setting of coordinate system and pixel resampling method

            Select "Coordinate system" from "Edit" menu, then select required coordinate system from two available (Gauss-Kruger on Krasovsky spheroid or UTM on WGS-84 spheroid). Or you can simply click on lines “Spheroid”, “Datum”, “Projection” and coordinate system changes.

            Select "Resampling type" item from "Edit" menu, then select necessary pixel resampling type from the list. Current resampling type is marked in the list. The best choice for “black and white” imagery is “Bilinear interpolation”, but it can change colours for multispectral (RGB) images.  "Nearest neighbour" resampling method is faster and does not change colour of RGB images.

Note. All coordinates in the system are to be specified with zone number as first digits in Easting coordinate.

For example: 12356800 – 12 zone 356800- coordinates in zone

Setting of location and size of orthoimage.

To set location and size of orthoimage select item "Ortho Image Location" from "Edit" menu.

            Output orthoimage is oriented along Easting/Northing axes of specified coordinate system, so orthoimage location is determined by one point - North-West corner of orthoimage corresponding to output file coordinates 0:0 (upper left corner of the output image). For transformation of the image to mean plane of the required area average height of the area must be specified.

Attention! Average height is also used for the pixels of the required area beyond DEM area. It may lead to image distortions at the DEM / average height border area if difference in heights is significant. To avoid this, control orthoimage and DEM area sizes carefully.

            Orthoimage size and grid step are specified in meters.

            To process the whole input image use "All Image" button. In this case the coordinates of North-West corner, output pixel size corresponding to input pixel size and orthoimage size corresponding to the whole input file are determined from the parameters of exterior orientation corresponding to the set of ground control points. These values are used as orthoimage location.

            To process the image within DEM borders use "DEM" button.

            Use "From GCP" button to define the mean plane with the height determined as average of the heights of control points.

            Use "From GCP" button to define the step of output image from ground control points.

            A local Cartesian topocentric systemIDH_topo is used for production of orthoimage. Using "Calc Topo" button the origin of the topocentric system is located in the center of orthoimage area (the option "Auto topocentric" is automatically turned off). For most tasks this way of location of topocentric system is recommended.  An advanced user can specify the location of the topocentric system manually.

Output orthoimage file pixels outside the image area will be filled with "Null Value" (for 8-bit grayscale 0 is black, 255 is white).

Setting of topocentric system location

            Topocentric coordinate system is the Cartesian system in which exterior orientation will be done. It can be defined by its origin and azimuth. To set location of topocentric system select "Topocentric System" item from "Edit" menu. Or select page “Topo” of project window.

Radio buttons                If selected

Auto topocentric            Origin of topocentric system defines in the centre of control points (default)

User defined                  Origin of topocentric system can be defined by user

Button

Calc Topo                      origin of topocentric system defined in the centre of area of interest (AOI)

Auto Azimuth                azimuth of topocentric system sets from camera definition according to the pass of satellite

ComboBox

Ascending pass             ascending pass of satellite orbit

Descending pass           descending pass of satellite orbit

For most tasks “Auto topocentric” location of topocentric system is recommended.  An advanced user can specify the location of the topocentric system manually.

You can specify latitude and longitude of the origin of topocentric system on Topo page of Project window. The coordinates are entered in the following format:

ddd:mm:ss.ss N|S|E|W

where:

ddd - degrees;

mm - minutes;

ss.ss - seconds with decimal fractions;

N|S|E|W - North, South, East, or West.

            "Auto Azimuth" button is used for automatic setting of azimuth of the topocentric system according to the camera type and taking into account ascending or descending orbit (option "Ascending pass"):

Camera type       KVR-1000             TK-350                 KFA-1000,MK-4    LandsatTM          AerialPhoto

Ascending orbit     115                      25                        8                          98                        0

Descending orbit   245                      155                      172                      98                        0

Setting camera model

The source image can be described using various models. There are 7 models for image orientation in OrthoMap:

·         Polynomial (Conformal).

·         Polynomial (Affine).

·         Polynomial second order.

·         Frame (central projection);

·         Simple Dynamic;

·         Panoramic Static;

·         Panoramic Dynamic;

You can choose geometric model of  image which will be used for external orientation on page “Model” of Project window.

Setting direction of image coordinate system

            The source image file has left coordinate system, but to solve the task of orientation it is necessary to use right coordinate system. It is possible to transform left coordinate system to right one in several variants. In OrthoMap it is possible to select the direction of image coordinate system. Select Edit -> Orientation, then select one of the four possible directions of coordinate system in Orientation window.


 


Exterior orientation image and map windows

You can do external orientation by pressing “Exterior orientation”   button on main window toolbar.

Will be opened two windows:

·         Exterior orientationIDH_Ext – with list of control point (if were imported or defined in previous run) .

·         Image window - with input image.

On image window you can use commands:

Select               - select conrtol point closest to cursor position;

All image           - fit image to window (keyboard grey *);

Zoom in             - increase image in window (keyboard grey +);

Zoom out           - decrease image in window (keyboard grey -);

Zoom mode       - cursor in zoom mode (left click – select in image central point of window,

  drag cursor – new zoom);

  press key ‘Shift’ and you will be able to change pixel coordinates for current control point

  (instant Arrow mode );

Arrow  mode      - left click changes pixel coordinates for current control point

Auto histogram stretch   - increase brightness of image.

All command are available from popup menu (right click on image).

“Open raster map”   button will be shown on main window toolbar.

General description

            The window "Exterior Orientation" contains the table of GCPs each of which can be in two modes: On/active ("Yes" in column On/Off) and Off/passive ("No" in column On/Off). Switching of modes can be done by left mouse button double click on the cell "On/Off" of the row with required point. Active points will be used in orientation process automatically. Position errors in X and Y will be shown in columns "Rxy,m", "dX,m" and "dY,m". The aggregate result of orientation (RMS) will be shown in status line in the bottom of the window.

The GCP table has the following fields:

·         Name - point name (without blanks);

·         On/Off - point status, only active points will be used in orientation and pixel calculation;

·         X, pixels - pixel values of X coordinate in image file;

·         Y, pixels - pixel values of Y coordinate in image file;

·         Easting, m - geodetic coordinate West-East in meters;

·          

·         Northing, m - geodetic coordinate North-South in meters;

·         Height, m - point height in meters;

·         Rxy,m – RMS on x,y;

·         dX,m – X error on point;

·         dY,m – Y error on point.

There are the following buttons in this window:

Undo                - undo last changes;

Add point         - add point after the current one;

Delete point     - delete current point;

Solve               - solve external orientation according current geometric model;

RMS w/o - RMS is calculated for each point (shown in column "RMS w/o") in assumption that this point is passive. In this mode we can find the worst point (with the minimal value in the column "RMS w/o") and turn it off.

Calc pixels       - calculate pixel coordinates for current point with known geodetic coordinates, first order polynomial is used, its coefficients are calculated for all active points, not less than two active points with known pixel and geodetic coordinates are required;

Calc pixels for all “No” points - calculate pixel coordinates for current point with known geodetic coordinates, first order polynomial is used, its coefficients are calculated for all active points, not less than two active points with known pixel and geodetic coordinates are required;

Calc map - calculate geodetic coordinates for current point with known pixel coordinates, first order polynomial is used, its coefficients are calculated for all active points, not less than two active points with known pixel and geodetic coordinates are required.

Geometric model - ComboBox for geometric model selection

Edit existing point

            For editing of existing point you must select the row with this point in window "External Orientation". The point becomes current and will be shown in the table and on image in appropriate color.

            In normal state the image window is in zoom mode (cursor  ). For current point you must find its position on image and holding Shift key (the window mode changes to arrow mode and cursor image will be ) click left mouse button in selected location on image. Pixel coordinates in GCP table will be changed for the current point.

To add a new point press button "Add point".

You can define point geodetic coordinates from map. Press button   “Open raster map” on main window toolbar and select raster map with the help of standard “Open dialog” window. Coordinates of point, selected in map window will be displayed in columns “Easting” and “Northing”.

There    are three help modes for user (buttons "Calc Pixels", "Calc Map", "RMS w/o").

  1. you can calculate approximate pixel coordinates from known geodetic coordinates. This mode is available only after defining of location of two points;
  2. you can calculate approximate geodetic coordinates from known pixel coordinates. This mode is available only after defining of location of two points. This mode can be helpful for defining geodetic coordinates of some feature on image;
  3. you can calculate aggregate RMS for each active point in condition that this point is passive (button RMS w/o). If you turn off the point with the minimal value in the field "RMS w/o", then the aggregate orientation RMS will change to this minimal value.

 

Exterior orientation

The source image can be described using various models. There are 7 models for image orientation in OrthoMap:

·         Polynomial (Conformal).

·         Polynomial (Affine).

·         Polynomial second order.

·         Frame (central projection);

·         Simple Dynamic;

·         Panoramic Static;

·         Panoramic Dynamic;

In order to achieve maximal accuracy in orthorectification it is necessary to select the image model correctly. The following table shows default settings of orientation model for different types of cameras (these settings can be changed by operator):

Camera type    Orientation type (model)

KVR-1000         Panoramic Dynamic

TK-350              Frame

KFA-1000          Frame

MK-4                Frame

Landsat-TM       Panoramic Dynamic

Unknown           Frame

The transformation parameters include static (frame image) and dynamic parts. All these parameters are determined during exterior orientation. In case of insufficient amount of control points it is possible to determine only static (frame) image parameters.

The following parameters are determined during exterior orientation:

* coordinates of the point of photography;

* 3 angles of shooting;

* 6 dynamic parameters.

Select "Orientation" item from "Process" menu. If control points file is present, Exterior orientation window is opened.

The window contains a table of control points. Each point can be included into or excluded from the process of orientation by left-clicking in appropriate "On/Off" cell. To start the process of orientation press "Solve" button . Resulting accuracy (RMS error) of orientation is then displayed in "Accuracy of orientation" field. The column "Rxy" in the control points table shows RMS for each point. After completion of the process of orientation the resulting orientation parameters can be viewed in the Information window using "Info" item from "File" menu or "Project information"  button from tools palette. It is also possible to store the orientation accuracy report in a file by pressing  button. Before starting the process of orthorectification the active project must be saved for the resulting orientation parameters to be stored in the project file.

Rectification

           If the accuracy of exterior orientationIDH_ext is acceptable then it is necessary to save the parameters in project file by pressing "Save Project" button.

To start the module of orthorectification with current project select "Rectification (Ortho)" item from "Process" menu. If exterior orientationIDH_ext not solved then module rectify.exe will not start. If project was changed then you will be asked to save project before start of Rectify module.

The module works with active project. The module window displays the following information:

·         source image file name;

·         output file name;

·         number of columns and rows of output file;

·         grid steps in meters along X and Y axes for output file.

To start the process of orthorectification press "Start" button. Progress indication window displays elapsed processing time, approximate remaining processing time and percentage of process completion. To interrupt the process press "Cancel" button. If DEM is not specified when starting the process, transformation will be performed to mean plane with the height specified in the active project with appropriate message displayed in message window.

Utilities

Initially Menu “Utilities” contains some useful utilities:

"Orthorectification" – predefined tool for rectification

"Import DEM from XYZ file" – predefined tool for DEM import

"Import DEM from line format" – predefined tool for DEM import

"Import DEM from one Z on line" – predefined tool for DEM import

You can tune this menu. Menu items may be defined in file ‘tools.ini’ in OrthoMap folder.

You must fill two lines for every menu item:

first line – CaptionXXX – text line which will be shown in menu;

second  line – ModuleXXX – program, loaded on click,

where XXX – number of menu line, first line has number 000.

If CaptionXXX=- then there will be only line in the menu (see line Caption001)

And Number must be equal to overall quantity of menu lines

Example of predefined menu:

[Tools]

Number=5

Caption000=Orthorectification

Module000=rectify.exe

Caption001=-

Module001=-

Caption002=Import DEM from XYZ text file

Module002=Xyz2Bin2.exe

Caption003=Import DEM from line format

Module003=Line2Bin.exe

Caption004=Import DEM from one Z on line

Module004=Asc2Bin.exe

The Coordinate Calculator

Coordinate Calculator may be used for calculation of ground control points in needed projection.

See Coordinate Calculator User’s Guide for detailed description http://vinek.narod.ru/ccalc_ru.html

Reproject Utility

            Reproject utility is used to reproject orthoimages and DEM from one coordinate system to another. Input and output coordinate systems are specified in the same way as in Coordinate Calculator (see above section). Specify "Input file" and "Output file" through common "Open file" dialog. It is possible to specify required pixel size in meters for output file (by default it is equal to input file pixel size).

 

For detailed description see ReProject User’s Guide

 

Import of DEM from ASCII file

            For orthorectification it is necessary to use DEM in OSD format. For this purpose it is possible to import DEM from ASCII files.

ASCII format with one height value per a line, lines are separated by <CR>/<LF>. Beginning of output DEM file in OSD format corresponds to the North-West corner of the area. Therefore, the height values in input ASCII file must start from the North-West corner of the area and be located by lines. The origin point is the North-West corner of DEM. If source ASCII file is recorded starting from the South-West corner, then after import it is possible to use FLIP utility to flip DEM around horizontal axis.


Module ASC2BIN.


Import of DEM from ASCII file

·         ASCII format with each line containing all height values of DEM in one line. The values are blank separated, lines are separated by <CR>/<LF>. The order of input lines must corrspond to North-to-South direction. The origin point is the North-West corner of DEM.


Module Line2BIN.


Import of DEM from ASCII file

* ASCII format with values X (Easting), Y (Northing), Z (Height) in each line, lines are separated by <CR>/<LF>. X, Y, Z values must be blank separated. X, Y, Z values can be preceded by a point number, in this case it is necessary to specify option "ignore first column". Input file must contain all X, Y, Z values of a regular matrix. Interpolation of missed heights is not performed. If a value is missed, the DEM element is filled with a default value (0).


Module XYZ2BIN.


Export of DEM to ASCII file

            If necessary it is possible to export DEM from the interior format OSD to ASCII file in one of the following formats:

* ASCII format with one height value per a line, lines are separated by <CR>/<LF>. The hight values in output file are located from the North-West corner by lines.


Module BIN2ASC.


* ASCII format with each line containing all height values of DEM in one line. The values are blank separated, lines are separated by <CR>/<LF>. The hight values in output file are located from the North-West corner.


Module BIN2Line.


ASCII format with values N (point number), X (Easting), Y (Northing), Z (Height) in each line, lines are separated by <CR>/<LF>. N X, Y, Z values are separated by comma and blank. The points in output file are located from the South-West corner by lines.


Module BIN2XYZ.

Flip

            To flip or rotate source image and DEM files around horizontal axis use "Flip" utility from "Utilities" item of Main Menu.


 


 - no flip, can be used for format conversion, e.g. TIFF to BMP;

 - flip around vertical axis;

 - flip around horizontal axis;

 - rotation 1800;

 - rotation 900 clockwise;

 - rotation 900 counterclockwise;

Formats of input files

·         Source imagery. Source image may be in TIFF, BMP, JPEG, OSD, ERS, DTM format.

·         DEM files. DEM must be in OSD, ERS, DTM or TIFF 16-bit format or can be imported from ASCII format (see "Import of DEM from ASCII file"IDH_Imp above).

Format of output orthoimage

            Images can be saved in TIFF, BMP, JPEG, OSD(OrthoMap Dataset), ERS formats. In OSD format the image or DEM data is stored in BIL format starting from the upper left corner of image or DEM. Accompanying information (geo information, image size, etc.) is stored in a separate text file (header) with the same name as the data file and extension OSD. The data file name has no extension.

For TIFF, BMP and JPEG formats corresponding geo-referencing file ("world file") is automatically created, e.g. TFW for TIF.

Format of OSD file header

OSD header is divided into the following blocks of information:

CoordinateSystem. This block contains the following:

Ellipsoid ("Datum");

Cartographic projection ("Projection");

Units of measurement ("Units") - meters.

ImageInfo. This block contains the following:

* Cell type ("CellType");

* X and Y cell sizes in "Units" (XDimension, YDimension);

* Number of lines ("NrOfLines") and columns ("NrOfCellsPerLine") of the data file;

* Geodetic origin point ("RegistrationPoint") - geodetic coordinates of the geodetic reference point are specified in "Units";

* Pixel coordinates of the geodetic reference point in data file ("RegistrationCellX" and "RegistrationCellY");

Number of bands ("NrOfBands").

Example

OrthoSetDataHeader [

  Version      = 1.0

  LastUpdated  = Fri Jun 30 17:20:24 GMT 2000

  DataSetType  = OrthoSetData

  ByteOrder = LSBFirst

  CoordinateSystem [

    Datum      = "PULKOVO"

    Projection = "GAUSE15"

    Spheroid = ""

    Units      = "METERS"

    CoordinateType  = EN

  CoordinateSystem ]

  ImageInfo [

    CellType   = UNSIGNED16BITINTEGER

    Xdimension = 20.000

    Ydimension = 20.000

    NrOfLines  = 250

    NrOfCellsPerLine = 250

    RegistrationPoint [

      Eastings  = 6334000.000

      Northings = 3324000.000

    RegistrationPoint ]

    RegistrationCellX     = 0.000

    RegistrationCellY     = 0.000

    NrOfBands = 1

  ImageInfo ]

OrthoSetDataHeader ]

Format of GCP-file

Ground Control Points (GCP) file is created by View and Measure (V&M) module and is intended for solving the task of exterior orientation. The file is a text file each line of which contains information about one control point in the following format:

<Name>  <On/Off> <CellX> <CellY> <GeoX> <GeoY> <GeoZ>

where:

"Name" is point's name;

"On/Off" specifies whether a point is included to the process of orientation ("On") or not ("Off");

"CellX", "CellY" are file pixel coordinates of a point;

"GeoX", "GeoY" are accordingly Easting and Northing coordinates of a point in meters in selected cartographic projection;

"GeoZ" is height of a point in meters.

Example:

Name   On/Off  CellX                CellY                GeoX               GeoY                GeoZ

6_3       Yes       11623.500         3001.500           8224924.070      2019273.800      2713.240

6_4       Yes       11756.500         3533.500           8228258.370      2019053.460      2636.130

7_4       Yes       11165.500         3923.500           8229381.510      2014885.680      2520.240

7_5       Yes       11404.500         4533.500           8233366.060      2015145.070      2392.550

7_6       Yes       11535.500         5296.500           8238031.170      2014480.110      2251.360

8_4       Yes       10516.500         3920.500           8228202.040      2011003.240      2789.130

8_5       Yes       10892.500         5201.500           8236113.530      2011195.720      1477.380

8_6       Yes       10562.500         5665.500           8238150.650      2008438.600      1290.270

8_9       Yes       11582.500         8136.500           8254624.010      2009277.840      2137.370

9_9       Yes       10879.500         8344.500           8254497.070      2004745.150      2194.620

7_7       Yes       11845.500         6690.500           8246715.120      2013603.510      2197.420

 Format of PTS file - control points

<point name> <X coordinate Easting> <Y coordinate Northing> <height>

Delimiter: blank.

Example:

Point name      X coordinate Easting   Y coordinate Northing  Height

6_3                   8224924.070                  2019273.800                  2713.240

6_4                   8228258.370                  2019053.460                  2636.130

7_4                   8229381.510                  2014885.680                  2520.240

7_5                   8233366.060                  2015145.070                  2392.550

7_6                   8238031.170                  2014480.110                  2251.360

8_4                   8228202.040                  2011003.240                  2789.130

8_5                   8236113.530                  2011195.720                  1477.380

8_6                   8238150.650                  2008438.600                  1290.270

8_9                   8254624.010                  2009277.840                  2137.370

9_9                   8254497.070                  2004745.150                  2194.620

7_7                   8246715.120                  2013603.510                  2197.420

OrthoMap abnormal termination error codes

1        ERROR_INVALID_FUNCTION

2        ERROR_FILE_NOT_FOUND

3        ERROR_PATH_NOT_FOUND

4        ERROR_TOO_MANY_OPEN_FILES

5        ERROR_ACCESS_DENIED

6        ERROR_INVALID_HANDLE

7        ERROR_ARENA_TRASHED

8        ERROR_NOT_ENOUGH_MEMORY

9        ERROR_INVALID_BLOCK

10       ERROR_BAD_ENVIRONMENT

11       ERROR_BAD_FORMAT

12       ERROR_INVALID_ACCESS

13       ERROR_INVALID_DATA

14       ERROR_OUTOFMEMORY

15       ERROR_INVALID_DRIVE

16       ERROR_CURRENT_DIRECTORY

17       ERROR_NOT_SAME_DEVICE

18       ERROR_NO_MORE_FILES

19       ERROR_WRITE_PROTECT

20       ERROR_BAD_UNIT

21       ERROR_NOT_READY

22       ERROR_BAD_COMMAND

23       ERROR_CRC

24       ERROR_BAD_LENGTH

25       ERROR_SEEK

26       ERROR_NOT_DOS_DISK

27       ERROR_SECTOR_NOT_FOUND

28       ERROR_OUT_OF_PAPER

29       ERROR_WRITE_FAULT

31       ERROR_GEN_FAILURE

32       ERROR_SHARING_VIOLATION

33         ERROR_LOCK_VIOLATION

34         ERROR_WRONG_DISK

36       ERROR_SHARING_BUFFER_EXCEEDED

38       ERROR_HANDLE_EOF

39       ERROR_HANDLE_DISK_FULL

50       ERROR_NOT_SUPPORTED

51       ERROR_REM_NOT_LIST

52       ERROR_DUP_NAME

53       ERROR_BAD_NETPATH

54       ERROR_NETWORK_BUSY

55       ERROR_DEV_NOT_EXIST

Technical support

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E-mail: vinek@yahoo.com






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